There are two different schools of thought regarding the State: the inductive-historical thought represented by Aristotle, Vico, Hegel, Marx and Engels, which expresses that the State is an organizational and political structure that arises from the complexity of the Society, aiming to keep the existing order, and thus, the class system; and, the deductive-logical thought represented by Hobbes, Locke, Kant and Rousseau, which affirms that the State is the political-institutional result of a social contract that allows men to keep order and respect for private property and contracts in exchange of his liberty.
The concept of the State has changed throughout human history. Man sees the State according to his perception of reality, through the eyeglasses that allow him to define the State according to his concepts, values, and understanding of reality. The State has not been a unique monolithic entity throughout history. If man sees the reality as conflictive, the State will be the balance of these conflicts; if human reality is seen as class struggle, then the State will result from this, and so on. The concept of the State belongs to the man’s perception of reality. In other words, the State will be what the man decides it should be.
Based on these considerations, we can affirm that the concept of the State results from the man’s level of consciousness, rather than its own internal nature. In other words, the essence of the State depends on the man’s perception of reality.
Society and the State can be seen as organic structures under the organic perspective. The State can be shaped as an organic unit with well-defined duties within the organic society, such as the following:
a) Provide the necessary conditions to all organic units to fulfill their tasks.
b) Intervene when required to solve an issue that prevents any given organic units from fulfilling their tasks, or interacting freely and fairly.
The main duty of the State should be to ensure that the whole system operates properly. It should act as the general coordination unit. In this sense, the Organic State will make certain that all other units perform well. It will not be the main unit, or the driver of the economic system, but the support provider to the rest of the units. The State will accompany the natural development of the social structures, provide support to the economic units, coordinate the proper operation of the system, and give assistance to every unit to fulfill their task.
The Organic State will continuously monitor the operation of the Organic Society, and will make sure everything works as expected. The figure on the side shows the Organic Society structure, the Organic State, and two given units A and B, which will receive the support from the State in case of disruption of the resources that should be received, or the required information to perform their tasks.